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# METRIC CONVERSION LINKS

Following are several excellent web sites with conversion factors, tables,

and conversion calculators:

**ConvertMe.com:**

http://www.convert-me.com/en/

**Engineering Network: Metric Conversion Chart:**

http://www.engnetglobal.com/tips/convert.asp

**Freie Universitat Berlin: Insitut fur Chemie und Biochemie: Conversion of Units:**

http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/general/units_en.html

**Mack Corporation: Engineering Conversion Factors:**

http://www.mackcorp.com/engineeringconversionfactors/convfactors.html

**NASA: Units of Measure & Conversion Factors:**

http://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/volume2/Appx_e_units.htm#M

**On-Line Conversions.com:**

http://www.onlineconversion.com/

**Science Made Easy:**

http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/conversions.html

**Wikipedia Encyclopedia: Conversion Units**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_of_units

METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS

Following is an exhaustive list of conversion factors, courtesy of the

NASA web site listed above:

**ATMOSPHERE (atm):**

Def: The pressure exerted by 76 cm mercury with a density of 13.5951

gm/cm3 at 1g (the standard barometric pressure at sea level).

1 atm = 325 x 106 dynes/cm 2

1 atm = 1033.2 gm/cm 2

1 atm = 760 mm Hg

1 atm = 14.696 psi

1 atm = 101.329 kPa (kilo Pascals)

**BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu):**

1 Btu = 1.0559 x 1010 ergs

1 Btu = 1055.9 joules

1 Btu = 251.995 gm-cal

1 Btu = 778.77 ft-lbs

1 Btu = 0.25199 kcal

1 Btu/hr = 0.1667 Btu/min

1 Btu/hr = 0.04199 kcal/min

1 Btu/hr = 0.2932 watt

1 Btu/min = 0.25199 kcal\min

1 Btu/min = 0.23599 hp

1 Btu/min = 17.595 watts

1 Btu/ft2, hr = 2.7125 kcal/m2 hr

Btu/hr to joules:

1 Btu/hr = 1.05435 x 103 joule/hr

800 Btu/hr x 1054.35 = 843480 joule/hr

**CANDELA (cd):**

1 cd = 1.018 candle

**CANDLE (c):**

The unit of luminous intensity.

1 c = 1 lumen/steradian

**CELSIUS (°C):**

(See Degrees Centigrade)

**CELSIUS (°C):**

(See Degrees Centigrade)

**CENTIGRADE (°C):**

(See Degrees Centigrade)

**CENTIMETER (cm):**

(See also Square Centimeter, Cubic Centimeter).

1 cm = 0.03280 ft

1 cm = 0.3937 in

1 cm = 0.01 m

1 cm = 10mm

1 cm = 1x104m (micron)

**CENTIMETER-CANDLE (phot):**

1 phot = 1 x 104 lux

**CENTIMETERS PER SECOND PER SECOND:**

1 cm/sec2 = 0.0328 ft/sec2

**CLO (clo):**

The unit of insulation resistance for clothing.

1 clo = 0.18°C m2hr/kcal

1 clo = 0.88°F ft2hr/Btu

**CUBIC CENTIMETER (cc or cm3):**

1 CC = 3.531 x 10-5 ft3

1 CC = 0.061023 in3

1 CC = 1 x 10-6 m3

1 CC = 1000 mm3

1 CC = 2.6417 x 10-4 gal (US fluid)

1 CC = 0.0338 oz (US fluid)

1 CC = 2.113 x 10-3 pint (US fluid)

1 cc/sec = 0.0021186 ft3/min

**CUBIC FOOT**

1 ft3 = 1728 in3

1 ft3 = 28.32 liters

1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3

1 ft3/min = 472.0 cc/sec

1 ft3/min = 0.4720 liter/sec

1 ft3/min = 62.43 lbs H2O/min

1 ft3/sec = 1699.3 liters/min

**CUBIC INCH:**

1 in3 = 5.787 x 10-4 ft3

1 in3 = 1.639 x 102 liter

1 in3 = 1.639 x 10-5 m3

**CUBIC METER:**

1 m3 = 35.3144 ft3

1 m3 = 6.1023 x 104 in3

1 m3 = 999.973 liters

**DECIBEL (db):**

Used for comparing power levels, acoustical or electrical. (See also Sound

Pressure Level).

1 db = 10 log10 P/PO

where P is the power to be compared to a reference power PO

1 db = 1 bel is equal to an increase in power (P) by a factor of 10

**DEGREE (ANGULAR) (deg):**

1 deg = 60 minutes

1 deg = 0.01745 radian

1 deg = 3600 seconds

1 deg = 1.7453 X 10-2 steradian --- note, this is changed from the original version that contains an error

**DEGREES TO RADIANS:**

1 deg = π/180 rad

60° x π/180 = 1.0472 = 1 rad

**DEGREES CENTIGRADE (°C):**

°C = 5/9 * (°F - 32)

**DEGREES FAHRENHEIT (°F):**

°F = (9/5 * °C) + 32

**DEGREES PER SECOND:**

1 deg/sec = 0.017453 radian/sec

1 deg/sec = 0.1667 rpm

**DYNE (dyne):**

1 dyne = 1.0197 x 10-6 kg

1 dyne = 2.2481 x 10-6 lb

1 dyne-cm = 1 erg

**DYNE PER SQUARE CENTIMETER**

1 dyne/cm2 = 9.8692 x 10-7 atm

1 dyne/cm2 = 0.0010197 gm/cm2

1 dyne/cm2 = 4.0148 x 10-4 in H2O

1 dyne/cm2 = 7.5006 x 10-4 mm Hg

1 dyne/cm2 = 1.4504 x 10-5 psi

**ERG (erg):**

1 erg = 9.4805 x 10-11 Btu

1 erg = 7.3756 x 10-8 ft-lb

1 erg = 2.3889 x 10-11 kcal

1 erg = 8.8510 x 10-7 lb-in

1 erg = 1 dyne-cm

**FAHRENHEIT (°F):**

(See Degrees Fahrenheit).

**FOOT (ft):**

(See also Square Foot, Cubic Foot).

1 ft = 30.48 cm

1 ft = 12 in

1 ft = 0.3048 m

**FOOT-CANDLE (fc):**

1 ft-c = 1 lumen/ft2

1 ft-c = 10.764 lumen/m2

1 ft-c = 10.75 lux

**FOOT-LAMBERT (ft-L):**

1 ft-L = 1.0764 millilamberts

1 ft-L = 0.32 decibels with respect to 1 mL

**FOOT PER MINUTE**

1 ft/min = 0.3048 m/min

1 ft/min = 0.005080 m/sec

1 ft/min = 0.011364 mph

**FOOT PER SECOND:**

1 ft/sec = 1.0973 km/hr

1 ft/sec = 0.5921 knot

1 ft/sec = 0.6818 mph

**FOOT-POUND (ft-lb):**

1 ft-lb = 0.001285 Btu

1 ft-lb = 1.3558 x 107 ergs

1 ft-lb = 3.2389 x 10-4 kcal

1 ft-lb/min = 3.0303 x 10-5 hp

1 ft-lb/min = 0.01667 ft-lb/sec

1 ft-lb/min = 0.022597 watt

1 ft-lb/sec = 0.001818 hp

1 ft-lb/sec = 0.01943 kcal/min

1 ft-lb/sec = 1.3558 watts

**G (g):**

The acceleration of gravity (also the acceleration of a vehicle).

1g = 9.81 m/s2

1 ft/sec = 1.0973 km/hr

1 ft/sec = 0.5921 knot

1 ft/sec = 0.6818 mph

**GRAM (gm):**

1 gm = 0.001 kg

1 gm = 1000 mg

1 gm = 0.03527 oz

1 gm = 0.0022046 lb

1 gm/cm3 = 62.428 lbs/ft3

1 gm/hr = 0.540 lb/day

1 gm/hr = 0.0003757 lb/min

1 gm/liter = 0.062427 lb/ft3

1 gm/cm2 = 9.6784 x 10-4 atm

1 gm/cm2 = 980.665 dynes/cm2

1 gm/cm2 = 0.9356 mm Hg

1 gm/cm2 = 0.014223 psi

1 gm/m2/hr = 2.78 x 10-5 gm/cm2/sec

1 gm/m2/hr = 0.7448 lb/ft2/hr

**GRAM-CALORIE (gm-cal):**

1 gm-cal = 30874 ft-lbs

1 gm-cal = 0.001 kcal

**GRAY (Gy):**

The International System of Units (SI) unit for the amount of ionizing

radiation energy absorbed by tissue.

1 Gy = 100 rads

**HORSEPOWER (hp):**

1 hp = 3.300 x 104 ft-lbs/min

1 hp = 550 ft-lbs/sec

1 hp = 10.688 kcal/min

1 hp = 745.7 watts

**INCH (in):**

(See also Cubic Inch, Square Inch)

1 in = 2.540 cm

1 in = 0.0833 ft

1 in = 25.40 mm

**INCH OF WATER (in H2O):**

1 in H2O (at 4°C) = 0.002458 atm

1 in H2O (at 4°C) = 2490.82 dynes/cm2

1 in H2O (at 4°C) = 0.0361 psi

1 in H2O (at 4°C) = 1.868 mm Hg

**JOULE (joule):**

1 joule = 1 watt-sec

**KILOGRAM (kg):**

1 kg = 1000 gm

1 kg = 2.205 lb

1 kg = 35.28 oz

**KILOGRAM-CALORIE (kcal or large Calorie):**

1 kcal = 3.9683 Btu

1 kcal = 4.186 x 1010 ergs

1 kcal = 1000 gm-cal

1 kcal = 3087 ft-lbs

1 kcal/hr = 0.0661 Btu/min

1 kcal/hr = 0.857 ft-lbs/sec

1 kcal/hr = 0.1667 kcal/min

1 kcal/hr = 1.161 watts

1 kcal/m2hr = 0.3687 Btu/ft2hr

1 kcal/min = 3.9685 Btu/min

1 kcal/min = 51.457 ft-lbs/sec

1 kcal/min = 0.093557 hp

1 kcal/min = 69.767 watts

**KILOGRAM-CENTIMETER SQUARED:**

1 kg-cm2 = 0.3417 lb-in2

**KILOGRAM-METER PER SECOND:**

1 kg-m/sec = 7.2330 ft-lb/sec

1 kg-m/sec = 9.80665 watts

**KILOMETER (km):**

1 km = 100,000 cm

1 km = 3281 ft

1 km = 103 meters, m

1 km = 0.6214 statute miles, mi

1 km = 0.54 nautical miles, nm

**KILOPASCAL:**

1kPa = 6.895 psi

1kPa = 4.754 x 105 dynes/cm2

1 psi = 0.145 kPa

**KILOMETERS PER HOUR:**

1 km/hr = 0.9113 ft/sec

1 km/hr = 0.5396 knot

1 km/hr = 0.6214 mph

**KNOT (nautical mile per hour):**

1 knot = 1.689 ft/sec

1 knot = 1.853 km/hr

1 knot = 1.1516 mph

**LAMBERT (L): Unit of surface brightness.**

1L = 0.3183 c/cm2

1L = 2.0536 c/in2

1L = 1 lumen/cm2

**LITER (l):**

1 liter = 0.03531 ft3

1 liter = 61.02 in3

1 liter = 1000 ml

1 liter/min = 5.886 x 10-4 ft3/sec

1 liter/sec = 2.12 ft3/min

**LUMEN (lumen):**

1 lumen = 0.001496 watt

1 lumen = 0.07958 spherical candle power

1 lumen/ft2 = 1 ft-c

1 lumen/ft2 = 10.764 lumen/m2

**LUMENS PER SQ. METER TO FT CANDLES:**

1 lumen/m2 = 0.0929 ft. candle

**LUX:**

1 lux = 0.093 ft-c (see meter-candle)

**METER (m):**

(See also Cubic Meter).

1m = 100 cm

1m = 3.281 ft

1m = 39.37 in

**METER-CANDLE (lux):**

1 lux = 1 lumen/m2

1 lux = 0.092903 ft-c

**METER PER SECOND (m/sec):**

1 m/sec = 3.281 ft/sec

1 m/sec = 3.600 km/hr

1 m/sec = 2.2369 mph

**MICRON (μ or mu):**

A unit of length equal to one-millionth of a meter or one-thousandth of a

millimeter, usually called micrometer.

1 μ = 10-6 meter

1 μ = 3.937 x 10-5 in

1 μ = 0.001 mm

**MIL (mil):**

1 mil = 0.001 in

1 mil = 0.0254 mm

1 mil = 25.40μ (microns)

**MILES (statute) (mi):**

1 mi = 1,609 x 105 cm

1 mi = 5,280 ft

1 mi = 1.609 km

**MILES PER HOUR (mph)**

1 mph = 88 ft/min

1 mph = 1.4667 ft/sec

1 mph = 1.6093 km/hr

1 mph = 0.8684 knot

**MILLIGRAM (mg):**

1 mg = 0.001 gm

1 mg = 3.5274 x 10-5 oz

1 mg = 2.2046 x 10-6 lb

1 mg/m3 = 6.243 x 10-4 lb/ft3

**MILLILAMBERT (ml):**

(perfectly diffused light)

1 mL = 0.929 lumen/ft2

**MILLILITER (ml):**

1 ml = 1.000028 cc

1 ml = 0.061025 in3

1 ml = 0.001 liter

1 ml = 0.0338 oz (US fluid)

**MILLILITERS PER HOUR:**

1 ml/hr = 0.06102 in3/hr

**MILLIMETER (mm):**

(See also Square Millimeter)

1mm = 0.10 cm

1mm = 0.03937 in

1mm = 1000 μ

**MILLIMETER OF MERCURY (mm Hg):**

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 0.0013158 atm

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 1333.22 dyne/cm2

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 1.3595 gm/cm2

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 0.019337 psi

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 0.535 in H2O

1mm Hg (at 0°C) = 0.1333 kPa

**MILLISECONDS (msec):**

1 msec = 0.001 sec

**NAUTICAL MILES (nm):**

1 nm = 0.87 statute miles

1 nm = 1.85 kilometers

**NEWTONS TO POUNDS:**

1 N = 0.22507 lbf

**NEWTON CENTIMETERS TO INCH OUNCES:**

1 N-cm = 1/.706 in oz

70N-cm x 1/.706 = 99.15 = 100 in oz

**NEWTON METERS TO FOOT POUNDS:**

1Nm = 1/1.356 ft lb

15Nm x 1/1.356 = 11.06 = 11 ft lb

**NEWTON METERS TO INCH POUNDS:**

1 Nm = 1/.11298 in lb

4 Nm x 1/.11298 = 35.4 = 3 5 in lb

**NIT:**

Unit of luminance equal to the luminance provided by one candle of radiant

flux emitted per square meter of surface - candela per square meter (Cd m2).

**OUNCE (oz):**

1 oz = 28.3495 gm

1 oz = 0.0625 lb

**PASCALS (Pa)**

Pa = 4.75389 dynes/cm2

Pa = 6.895 x 10-3 psi

**PARTS PER MILLION (ppm).**

1 ppm = 1.0 mg/liter of H2O

1 ppm = 8.345 lbs/million gallons

**PHON (phon):**

1 phon unit = SPL of a 1000 cycle/sec tone

**PHOT:**

(See Centimeter Candle)

**PHYSICAL CONSTANTS:**

Acceleration of gravity (g) = 32.17 ft/sec^{2}= 980.6 cm/sec^{2}

Avogadro's number (N) = 6.0221367 x 10^{23} molecules/gram-mole

Density of air at 0°C and 760 mm Hg = 0.0012929 grams/cm^{3}(0.0807

lb/ft^{3})

Density of water at 0°C = .099984 grams/cm^{3}

Heat of fusion of water at 1.0 atm = 79.7 calories/gram = 144 Btu/pound

Heat of vaporization of water at 1.0 atm = 540 calories/gram = 970 Btu/

pound

Naperian-logarithm base = 2.71828183

Pi (π) = 3.14159265

Specific heat of air = Cp = 0.238 cal/gram (°C)

Velocity of light (c) = 2.99792458 x 1010 cm/sec

Velocity of sound in dry air at 0°C, 1 atm = 33,136 cm/sec = 1,089 feet/sec

**POISE: Unit of viscosity.**

1 poise = 1 dyne/sec, cm2

1 poise = 1 gm/cm, sec

1 poise = 0.067196 lb/ft, sec

**POUND (lb):**

1 lb = 453.5924 gm

1 lb = 0.45359 kg

1 lb = 16 oz

1 lb = 4.448 N

1 lb/day = 18.89 gm/hr

1 lb/hr = 0.7559 gm/min

1 lb/hr = 10.886 kg/day

**POUND-INCH (lb-in):**

1 lb-in = 1.1298 x 106 dyne/cm

**POUND-INCH SQUARED:**

Unit of moment of inertia

1 lb-in2 = 2.9264 kg-cm2

**POUND OF WATER PER MINUTE (lb H2O/min):**

1 lb H2O/min = 0.01603 ft3/min

1 lb H2O/min = 2.670 x 10-4 ft3/sec

**POUND PER CUBIC FOOT (lb/ft3):**

1 lb/ ft3 = 0.01602 gm/ cm3

**POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi):**

1 psi = 0.06805 atm

1 psi = 6.8947 x 104 dyne/cm2

1 psi = 70.307 gm/cm2

1 psi = 51.715 mmHg

1 psi = 27.7 in H2O

1 psi = 145.03 Pa

**POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH ABSOLUTE (psia):**

Absolute pressure, where 0 psia = vacuum

1 psia = 0.1449 kpascals

**POUND WEIGHT (1 wt):**

1 lb wt = 4.4482 x 105 dynes

1 lb wt = 453.59 gm wt

1 lb wt = 16 oz

**RAD (rad):**

Radiation absorbed dose.

1 rad = 100 ergs/gm of irradiated material

**RADIAN (rad):**

1 radian = ½π circumference revolution (0.15915)

1 radian = 57.296 deg

1 radian/sec = 57.296 deg/sec

1 radian/sec = 9.549 rpm

1 radian/sec2 = 572.96 rpm2

**REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE (rpm):**

1 rpm = 6 deg/sec

1 rpm = 0.10472 radian/sec

1 rpm2 = 0.001745 radian/sec2

**ROENTGEN (r):**

1 r = ionization by x-rays or gamma-rays producing 1 electrostatic unit

of charge in 1 cm3 of air (STP)

1 r = 83.0 ergs/gm

**SIEVERT (Sv):**

Sv is the International System of Units (SI) unit for ionizing radiation dose

equivalent. (Refer to Figure 5.7.2.1.3.1-1 for definition of Q values)

1 Sv = 100 rem = (Gy) (Q)

**SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL):**

SPL is sound pressure related logarithmically to a reference level of pressure

(Po), which by convention is 0.0002 dynes/cm2. The defining equation is:

SPL = 20 log10 P/PO in decibels

**SQUARE CENTIMETER (cm2):**

1 cm2 = 1.076 x 10-3 ft2

1 cm2 = 0.1550 in2

1 cm2 = 100 mm2

**SQUARE FOOT (ft2):**

1 ft2 = 929.0304 cm2

1 ft2 = 144 in2

**SQUARE INCH (in2):**

1 in2 = 6.4516 cm2

1 in2 = 0.006944 ft2

1 in2 = 645.1626 mm2

**SQUARE MILLIMETER (mm2):**

1 mm2 = 0.01 cm2

1 mm2 = 0.001550 in2